The Ten Foundation Stones of The Unity Theory ®
of Time and Space, Matter and Light
© Grahame Blackwell 2011
This multifaceted view of material reality is unique, radically different from the conventional view, in its perspective on space and time. Whilst supporting all experimentally proven aspects of the conventional view it differs significantly from that view in one key respect, as detailed in Principle 8 of the ten universal principles of the Unity Theory.
The following observations, each drawn from peer-reviewed scientific papers published in mainstream journals, provide a robust scientific foundation for the central premise on which the principles of the Unity Theory are founded: every bit of matter in the universe, from a sub-atomic particle to a gas cloud to a planet, is formed from loops of electromagnetic energy – ‘cyclic photons’ of light (including non-visible frequencies). Numbers of references are included for less familiar scientific facts; these include references to publications by ten Nobel laureates.
1. Matter is energy
Every physical object in the universe – a rock, a house, your body – is shaped from pure energy. That’s the message of Einstein’s famous equation E = mc2. The energy content of an object (E) is equal to its mass (m) multiplied by the square of the speed of light (c). That c is a rather big number – 300,000,000 metres per second, over a billion kilometres an hour – then multiply it by itself. So when even a small amount of matter is ‘unlocked’ and released as free energy, that’s quite a lot of energy. It’s reckoned that the total energy in five kilograms of anything (if it could be released) would power an automobile non-stop for a million years. An atom bomb or a nuclear power station releases just a fraction of the matter in its radioactive payload or fuel as pure energy – that’s a pretty clear practical illustration of this first foundation stone.
2. We see light becoming matter and matter becoming light countless times every second
When we see the colour in a green leaf or a red rose, that’s because all the other frequencies (colours) of light are becoming part of (‘absorbed by’) that leaf or that rose, only the green or the red are reflected. Whenever we see light from the sun, a candle, a light bulb, that light has been released from the substance of the sun/candle/light-bulb – it was previously part of those things.
3. Particles of matter can turn into photons of pure energy
When a material particle and its corresponding antiparticle meet (* see ‘antimatter’, below), they ‘annihilate’ each other to produce two conventional photons of energy. Those photons have the same energy content as was previously held in the two particles. [Five refs]
4. Photons of pure energy can turn into matter
Just as two fast-moving ice skaters travelling in opposite directions could join hands in passing and end up spinning together on the spot, two conventional photons of pure energy can (under certain circumstances) combine to form a particle and its corresponding antiparticle*. Combination of colliding photons to create particles has been extensively demonstrated by experiment over several decades. [Five refs]
5. The cyclic-photon description of matter explains quantum features of an electron
An electron, the sub-atomic particle which orbits the nucleus (core) of an atom (in numbers depending on the type of atom) has a number of quantum characteristics such as charge, magnetic moment, spin. Theoretical consideration of a cyclic-photon model of the electron shows that those characteristics can be explained by such a model. [One ref]
6. The cyclic-photon description of matter explains all verified findings of Special Relativity
Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity includes a number of findings that have been thoroughly confirmed by experiment: slowing down of time for fast-moving objects, constancy of speed of light regardless of the speed of the observer, mass-energy equivalence (E = mc2), increase in effective mass of a fast-moving object, transformation of space-time measurements for an observer moving at speed. All of these effects follow as logical consequences from the cyclic-photon model of material particles and can be derived mathematically directly from that model. [One ref]
7. Matter acts as waves – just as light does
Count Louis de Broglie, the first physicist ever to win a Nobel prize for his doctoral thesis, proposed a wave-like quality for matter to match the waveform of light. Just two years later two American physicists, Clint Davisson and Lester Germer, demonstrated the wave-like behaviour of material particles as a physical reality. [Two refs]
8. An electron has a cyclic motion at the speed of light.
Erwin Schrödinger, another Nobel prize-winner, in a paper published over eighty years ago, described the periodic motion in an electron about its central position at the speed of light. A number of physicists have, over the past sixty years, pointed to this as an actual physical feature of the structure of an electron, rather than just a probability-based concept. In 2008 a paper was published detailing actual observations of the effects of this cyclic motion – confirmation that the structure of that sub-atomic particle does indeed include a cyclic motion at the speed of light. [Five refs]
9. The lopsided structure of photons could explain the lopsided numbers of particles and antiparticles
Since the proposal of antimatter in 1928 and its discovery in cosmic rays four years later (see * below) there has been much speculation as to the relative abundance of matter and antimatter in the universe. It was for a time thought that there might be star systems, or even whole galaxies, of antimatter, just as our galaxy is all ‘normal’ matter (matter and antimatter annihilate each other on contact, so they can’t coexist close to each other). But extensive study of the visible universe over the past eighty years has shown that it’s composed almost exclusively of conventional matter, with just sparse pockets of antimatter – recognized by release of energy at characteristic matter-antimatter annihilation frequencies as it comes into contact with normal matter.
Conventional theory says that there were almost the same number of particles of matter and antimatter formed at the time of the Big Bang, with just one in every billion or so more of the normal kind. Mutual annihilation has wiped out almost all of the antiparticles, and an equal number of normal particles, leaving just those one-in-a-billion to form all the matter that now exists in the universe. Statistical analysis shows that this couldn’t have happened by chance – the odds against that are billions of billions of billions … (etc) to one.
So why this cosmic imbalance? Well, five Nobel prizes have been awarded to date for discoveries showing slight differences in behaviour between certain elementary particles and their antiparticles. But, as one of those Nobel laureates said in his award lecture in 2008: “We still don’t know what has caused this imbalance”.
The Unity Theory offers a possible answer – an answer that could resolve that 80-year old question and that at the same time further confirms the validity of the Theory itself. This answer is based on the fact that photons are intrinsically asymmetric – it’s not possible to form an exact mirror image of any photon, since the layout of the electric and magnetic field components is always the same way round. If photons are asymmetric then it follows that particles formed from photons will also be asymmetric – a particle and its corresponding anti-particle will not be perfect mirror images of each other. It follows that their behaviours will be different and that one is likely to be more inherently stable than the other.
The Unity Theory proposes that conventional particles and their antiparticles were both formed at the time of the Big Bang, but that more were formed of the more stable type and/or that type were more resilient to the intense energies that they were subject to in the immediate aftermath of the Big Bang. (The first of the two papers on which the Unity Theory is founded – see two refs here – specifically addresses the adaptability of particle structure to energy fluctuations).
These two cosmic asymmetries – asymmetry of photon structure and of particle-antiparticle abundance in the observable universe – are too closely associated to be a coincidence. The Unity Theory provides the link that makes sense of this cosmic conundrum. [Nine refs]
10. Another cosmic coincidence? Two different Big Bang products happen to interact perfectly with each other
We take it for granted that photons of light and particles of matter interact perfectly with one another. As it says in point 2, above, we see it happening all the time. That interaction is fundamental to smooth functioning of the universe. But if photons and material particles are different types of entities, how could it possibly be that the Big Bang creation event should just happen to have produced two different types of things that just happen to interact so seamlessly? That is stretching the long arm of coincidence way too far. (Even those with strong religious convictions would surely agree that this is contrary to God’s usual pattern of creating diversity out of sameness – such as the wealth of atoms from just three basic ingredients, the abundance of life-forms from a dozen or so atoms …)
Common sense says they must rather be two different versions of the same thing – and scientific reasoning shows clearly how this could have come about. [One ref]
* A few words about antimatter
In 1928 Paul Dirac proposed that for every ‘normal’ sub-atomic particle such as an electron or a proton there must be a corresponding ‘antiparticle’ with an opposite electric charge. This was confirmed in 1932 by Carl Andersen, who studied cosmic rays (a combination of radiation and material particles) raining down on our atmosphere from space. He identified particles which were identical to electrons – except that they carried a positive charge instead of the negative charge of an electron. These positrons (positive electrons) are now routinely created artificially and used in some medical body-scanners (PET scanners). [Dirac and Andersen were both awarded Nobel prizes for their significant contributions to this important subject. At least five further Nobel prizes have since been awarded specifically for discoveries relating to antimatter.]
The Unity Theory says that the cyclic photons that form particles are held in closed loops by their internal electric field which, like their external field, is opposite for normal particles and their antiparticles. When a particle and its corresponding antiparticle meet those two internal charges will cancel out, releasing their two formative photons. Countless practical demonstrations have confirmed this ‘mutual annihilation’ and release of two photons – generally gamma rays released by conversion of an electron-positron pair into pure energy, each photon having the same energy as the energy known to be held by an electron or positron.